16; Macassar oil is an oil used primarily by men in Victorian and Edwardian times to smooth their hair. It was advertised as containing oil from Macassar, which is the former name of Ujung Pandang, a district on the island of Celebes in Indonesia. Exotic hair oil was quite the rage in the first half of the 19th century, another popular hair pomade being made from bear fat! (This gave rise to the curious practice of placing stuffed bears outside English barber shops.) ; Wikipedia entry
Macchiavelli, Niccolò di Bernardo dei (1469-1527)
669; an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet and romantic comedic playwright. He is a figure of the Italian Renaissance and a central figure of its political component, most widely known for his treatises on realist political theory (The Prince) on the one hand and republicanism (Discourses on Livy) on the other. In The Prince Macchiavelli describes the arts by which a Prince (a ruler) can retain control of his realm. He focuses primarily on what he calls the principe nuovo or "new prince", under the assumption that a hereditary prince has an easier task since the people are accustomed to him. All a hereditary prince needs to do is carefully maintain the institutions that the people are used to; a new prince has a much more difficult task since he must stabilize his newfound power and build a structure that will endure. This task requires the Prince to be publicly above reproach but privately may require him to do things of an evil nature in order to achieve the greater good; 669; Italian "facility for creeping about" 706; Wikipedia
690; The dispute between Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) is a symbolic struggle concerning legitimate rights over "Macedonia"-- the name, the territory, and the loyalty of its inhabitants. The dispute was created by two conflicting national narratives. In the Balkans, nation-building has emphasized particularistic over universalistic criteria. Local national narratives were instrumental in establishing the legitimate possession of a territory by a particular ethnic group. Historically, these narratives are tied to local nationalisms since their function is to designate a territory as the exclusive homeland of a particular nation. The Macedonian narrative views Macedonia as occupied by the Macedonian nation and suggests the existence of national minorities in Bulgaria and Greece. The Greek narrative does not acknowledge the existence of a Macedonian nation and considers the existence of a Macedonian minority within Greece to be a manifestation of Macedonian irredentism. The Macedonian narrative directly questions the Greek narrative's assumption of historical continuity. The strong Greek reaction against FYROM's declaration of independence is a response to this implicit threat to modern Greek identity ; 697; 845; 871;
Mach, Ernst (1838-1916)
412; 616; Austrian physicist and philosopher, best known as namesake of the Mach number. Mach number, M, is the ratio of the speed of flow of a gas to the speed of sound. When M = 1, it means the gas flow speed reaches the sonic speed; M > 1 the gas flows at supersonic speed and M < 1 subsonic speed. When Concord jetliner cruised at M = 2.2 that means she was flying at the speed of 2.2 times the speed of sound. Wikipedia entry.
"Macking for a mack"
359; a mack is slang for seducer, usually of women but in this case of potential investors; "mack" is also slang for a pimp. Reef is the bunco steerer, hence a mack in either sense. Stray is steering marks to him, hence acting as his mack.
756; This refers to Mohammed 'Ali Khan (1822-1841) who ruled the Central Asian state of Khanate of Kokand, ascending to the throne in 1821 at the age of 12. During his reign, the Khanate of Kokand reached its greatest territorial extent.
Madame Butterfly (opera)
Madero, Francisco I. (1873-1913)
Madero was a politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. As a respectable upper-class politician he supplied a center around which opposition to the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz could coalesce. However, once Díaz was deposed, the Mexican Revolution quickly spun out of Madero's control. He was deposed and executed by the Porfirista military that he neglected to replace with his revolutionary supporters. His death was followed by the most violent period of the revolution (1913-1917) until the Constitution of 1917 and revolutionary president Venustiano Carranza achieved some degree of stability; his force at Casas Grandes, 919; Revolution, 982; Article by Jim Tuck at Mexico Connect; Wikipedia entry
802; "blond wife of a Hungarian cavalry officer" with whom Reef is sleeping
Mags and Nuncs and Matins
497; different types of canticles
982; in Chihuahua; "politics through chemistry" 984;
143; "a shaman of great regional fame ... who has been active on behalf of the Ilimpiya" 775; disappears after Tunguska, 785;
29; "the expected one" - a Muslim leader who assumes a messianic role; The mahdi in V.
From Islamic eschatology in general and Shiiate Twelver Imam mysticism in particular, the Mahdi is similar to the coming avatar of Vishnu, Kalki, the Christian idea of the Second Coming of Christ or the Jewish idea of the Messiah -- a cosmic, divine figure who comes to defeat the principle of Evil (in Christian terms, The Antichrist, in Islam the Dajjal ) and restore the righteous to their proper place. The Mahdi will fight alongside Jesus to bring about the perfect and just Islamic society just prior to the "Day of the Resurrection" at the end of time.
Throughout Muslim history there have been leaders who proclaimed themselves the Mahdi, similar to Christians from time to time proclaiming themselves the Messiah.
Malus, Etienne-Louis (1775-1812)
126; "Napoleonic army engineer and physicist [...] looking through a piece of Iceland spar [...] discovered polarized light"; Wikipedia entry
Maman Tant Gras Hall
369; concert saloon in New Orleans
Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building
24; at the Chicago World's Fair
437-39; Followers of Mani, who taught that the universe is controlled by two antagonistic powers, light or goodness (identified with God), and darkness, chaos, or evil. One of Mani's claims was that, though Christ had been sent into the world to restore it to light and banish darkness, His apostles had perverted his doctrine, and he, Mani, was sent as the Paraclete to restore it; Wikipedia entry
Manning, Professor Henry Parker (1859-1956)
511; In 1889 he entered Johns Hopkins University to study mathematics, astronomy and physics. When he received his Ph.D. degree in 1891, his first printed paper had already appeared in the American Journal of Mathematics. He was appointed instructor in mathematics at Brown that same year, and “with his advent,” Professor Raymond C. Archibald would later write, “a new era in the development of mathematics at Brown was ushered in.” From 1893 to 1908 Manning offered courses in higher mathematics never previously available at Brown, courses with names like “Theory of functions: algebraic functions, Riemann surfaces, and Abelian functions,” “Substitutions and transformation groups,” and “Quaternions, non-Euclidean geometry, and hyperspace.” After 1908 there were others in the department able to teach higher mathematics. His publications included Non-Euclidean Geometry in 1901, the first English language text in this subject, Irrational Numbers and their Representation by Sequences and Series in 1906, and Geometry of Four Dimensions in 1914. 
Mantegna, Andrea (1431-1506)
725; an Italian Renaissance artist. A serious student of Roman archaeology and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective as he thought best, e.g., by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. At the age of eleven he became the apprentice of Francesco Squarcione, Paduan painter. Squarcione, whose original vocation was tailoring, appears to have had a remarkable enthusiasm for ancient art, and a faculty for acting. Like his famous compatriot Petrarca, Squarcione was something of a fanatic for ancient Rome: he travelled in Italy, and perhaps Greece, collecting antique statues, reliefs, vases, etc., forming a collection of such works, making drawings from them himself, and throwing open his stores for others to study from, and then undertaking works on commission for which his pupils no less than himself were made available. As many as 137 painters and pictorial students passed through his school, established towards 1440 and which became famous all over Italy. Mantegna was Squarcione's favorite pupil. Squarcione taught Mantegna the Latin language and instructed him to study fragments of Roman sculpture. He also preferred forced perspective; Wikipedia
642; waitress at Doña Cecilia; also the name assumed by the prostitute Major Marvy is engaging just before his orchidectomy in GR.
town becomes an unreadable, 461;
Maraca, Miss Jardine
1042; "canary" with the Vertex Club house band; photo animated, 1049;
638; a kind of arabica coffee with grains twice to 3 times as big as arabica grains. In Mexico, it is grown at 1400 meters high in the chiapas State close to the Pacific coast and the Guatemala border; sweet and nicely shaped;
667; with Ruperta
Marching Academy Harmonica Band
418-424; "aberration in [Chums of Chance's] history"
757; "noted Uyghur trouble-maker"; the Uyghur are a Turkic people of Central Asia. They are one of China's 56 officially recognized ethnicities. Wikipedia
Marin, Officer C.
477; reporting officer at cantina where Sloat was killed by Frank Traverse
584; Futurists; 587;
1028; St. Martin's Day (or Martinmas) is November 11, the feast day of Martin of Tours, who started out as a Roman soldier. He was baptized when he was grown up and became a monk. It is understood that he was a kind man who lead a quiet and simple life. The most famous legend of his life is that he once cut his cloak in half to share with a beggar during a snowstorm, to save the beggar from dying of the cold; Wikipedia entry
Marx, Karl (1818-1883)
359; immensely influential philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. While Marx addressed a wide range of issues, he is most famous for his analysis of history in terms of class struggles, summed up in the opening line of the introduction to the Communist Manifesto: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." 624. Wikipedia entry
"piratically bearded youth" with Tancredi, in Venice;
145; Matteawan State Hospital, originally the Asylum for Insane Criminals in Auburn, relocated to the village of Matteawan (between the Hudson River and the Fishkill Mountains) in 1891 and renamed the following year.
226; 269; See also Color
Mavrovlachi of Croatia
870; "Vlado's own"; the Morlachs, aka the Mavrovlachi ("Black Vlachs"), were a population of Vlach shepherds that lived in the Dinaric Alps (western Balkans in modern use), constantly migrating in search for better pastures for their sheep flocks. They were probably a blend of Romanized indigenous peoples and Roman colonists. Wikipedia
The adjective "black" is used here with the meaning of "northern", this metaphor probably deriving from the Turkic practice of naming cardinal directions after colours.
Maxim whirling machines
Maxwell Field Equations
58; In electromagnetics, Maxwell's equations are a set of four equations, developed by James Clerk Maxwell, that describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter. Maxwell's four equations express, respectively, how electric charges produce electric fields (Gauss' law), the experimental absence of magnetic monopoles, how currents and changing electric fields produce magnetic fields (the Ampere-Maxwell law), and how changing magnetic fields produce electric fields (Faraday's law of induction). 318; 330; 438; 532; 533; Wikipedia entry
98; Scottish mathematical physicist, born in Edinburgh. Maxwell formulated a set of equations expressing the basic laws of electricity and magnetism and developed the Maxwell distribution in the kinetic theory of gases. He was the last representative of a younger branch of the well-known Scottish family of Clerk of Penicuik. He is also credited with developing the first permanent colour photograph in 1861. "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism of 1873", 98; Wikipedia entry
The "Mayas" mentioned on p. 389 are probably Mayos.
284; thunderstorm-proof; 544; cult of, in Belgium; etymology, 545; 560; and potato salad, 1048;
Maza, Benito Juárez
987; governor of Oaxaca
365; a slide in the San Juans named after a mine owner's wife;
932; Ratty's wife, aka Jenny Invert
McHugh, Reginald "Ratty"
491; friend of Cyprian Latewood's; in Vienna, 700; 717-18; in Vienna, 808; in Venice, 865; aka "Reg" 932;
McKim, Mead and White
326; The most dazzling architect triumvirate in America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was that of of New York City's Charles Follen McKim, William Rutherford Mead, and Stanford White. The brilliance of McKim, Mead, and White changed the course of American architecture. Of the three, it was the genius of Stanford White that most importantly influenced the architectural scene in Buffalo. McKim, Mead, and White was formed in 1878 when Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909) formed a partnership with William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and William B. Bigelow. Bigelow retired the following year when Stanford White (1853-1906) joined the firm and the firm's name was established.
McKinley, President William (1843-1901)
109; the 25th President of the United States; figurehead, 109; Wikipedia entry
1058; the McNamaras were accused of dynamiting the Los Angeles Times building on October 1, 1910, resulting in the death of 21 persons. The crime was one of a nation-wide series intended to prevent the use of non-union materials and non-union labor. The defendants were strongly supported by the American Federation of Labor. Later the accused pleaded guilty, and James B. McNamara was sentenced to life imprisonment and John McNamara to imprisonment for 15 years. The pro-McNamara forces claimed that escaping gas, not a bomb, had destroyed the Times building. More extremist labor sympathizers charged that Otis himself had arranged the explosion.
Harrison Gray Otis was an American newspaper publisher who directed the Los Angeles Times from 1886 until after World War I, which he edited with an iron hand, becoming one of the most powerful figures in southern California. He made his newspaper a voice of Republican interests, and he opposed labor unions.
The McNamara brothers trial, which ended just as it began with confessions of guilt by the McNamaras, set the cause of organized labor on the West Coast back by decades. More...
It also nearly ruined the career of Clarence Darrow, one of America's leading criminal defense lawyers. Bert Franklin, on Darrow's payroll, was caught bribing two of the jurors in the McNamara trial. He plead ed guilty to jury tampering and he testified that Darrow had known and approved of the bribery efforts.
Darrow was arrested and put on trial. When organized labor turned its back on Darrow's request for financial assistance, Darrow had to pay all the legal costs of the 13-week trial out of his own pocket. Darrow denied the charges, and on August 14 and 15, 1912, gave an impassioned closing speech to the jurors, in which he claimed that:
- "I am not on trial for having sought to bribe a man named Lockwood. I am on trial because I have been a lover of the poor, a friend of the oppressed, because I have stood by Labor for all these years."
On August 15, 1912, the jury returned a verdict of not guilty after deliberating for less than an hour. More about Darrow's trial...
452; headquarters of Metaphysics Department at Candlebrow
McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis (1866-1925)
239; a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, from 1891 to 1925; an Idealist metaphysician of great range, invention, precision, and power. McTaggart developed his own, highly original, metaphysical system. In his two-volume Nature of Existence, the most famous element is his argument for the unreality of time. In a famous paper The Unreality of Time (1908), McTaggart had argued that our perception of time is an illusion, and that time itself is merely ideal, 412; professor at Cambridge, 749; "The senior combination-room of a college without a master" 933; Wikipedia entry
342; works for R. W. Vibe; "Olio of Oddities" 343; DISCUSSION
the Chicago Stockyards, 10; "those famous Chicago beefsteaks," 29; Meat Olaf, 129; Meat Olaf, 135; "details of his 'steak'," 182; steaks; "slab o' that bull meat," 337; Alonzo R. Meatman, 405; "the great Lard Scandal of the 80's," 406; "meat lozenges," 444; See also Shambles.
129; a fictional Norwegian dish, a variant of meatloaf, perhaps; 135;
Meatman, Alonzo R.
405; (first appearance misspelled "Meattman"); sold Zoot the time machine; 410; 412; lycopodium type, 413; Mr. Ace's tool, 414; at the Harmonica Academy, 419-422;
282; 383; aka Hair-Trigger Bob, in Colorado. Not much is known about the real life Robert D. Meldrum. Born in 1866 in England, Meldrum walked a fine line between gun-for-hire and law officer and was said to have shot over 14 men. He was employed by the Pinkerton's and was Deputy Town Marshal of Telluride during the early 1900s. Eventually arrested in 1912 for murder, although he only received a sentence of five to seven years in the Wyoming State Penitentiary. "Bad Man" Bob Meldrum
990; girl from Palenque Frank Traverse meets in Tapachula
100; fictional, Yale attending, football playing, pulp magazine character created by Burt L. Standish, alluded to by Kit Traverse.
230, "Death is a region of metaphor"; 299; "passing into metaphorical identities," 418; "some not strictly metaphorical way," 431;
705; hotel in Trieste where Derrick Theign stays, previously known as Buon Pastore
1011; The Pietà (1498-1499) by Michelangelo is a marble sculpture in St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the first of a number of works of the same theme by the artist. The statue was commissioned by the French cardinal Jean de Billheres, who was a representative in Rome. The statue was made for the cardinal's funeral monument, but was moved to its current location, the first chapel on the right as one enters the basilica, in the 18th century; Wikipedia on the Pieta;
Michelson, Albert Abraham (1852-1931)
58; Polish-born American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, the first American to receive the Nobel in the sciences; 132; Wikipedia entry
59; The Michelson–Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the history of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Edward Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University. It is generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the theory of a luminiferous aether. Primarily for this work, Albert Michelson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907; 1031; Wikipedia entry
For a good discussion of the Michelson-Morley Experiment and Pynchon's use of it in Against the Day, click here.
114; cultured pearls;
913; desk clerk at Grand-Hôtel-Tisza in Szeged;
101; Prior to the development of the minie ball, rifles were not used in combat due to the difficulty in loading. The ammunition used by rifles was the same diameter as the barrel in order for the bullet to engage the groves of the rifled barrel. As a result the ball had to be forced into the barrel. The minie ball, originally designed by Captain Claude-Etienne Minie of France and improved on by manufacturers in the United States, changed warfare. Since the minie ball was smaller than the diameter of the barrel, it could be loaded quickly by dropping the bullet down the barrel. This conical lead bullet had two or three grooves and a conical cavity in its base. The gases, formed by the burning of powder once the firearm was fired, expanded the base of the bullet so that it engaged the rifling in the barrel. Thus, rifles could be loaded quickly and yet fired accurately; 620; From the Smithsonian website
Minkowski, Hermann (1864-1909)
324; mathematician who developed the geometrical theory of numbers and who used geometrical methods to solve difficult problems in number theory, mathematical physics, and the theory of relativity; Hilbert's co-adjutor; at Candlebrow, 458; 1020; Wikipedia entry
Isola degli Specchi (Isle of Mirrors), 244; symmetry, 337; 347; 351; 353; 354; Isle of Mirrors "in that Lagoon over in Venice" where they make the "finest conjuror's mirrors" 422; 463; 498; 537; 553; 564; 569; 651; 706; 728; 877;
569; sales rep from mirror factory
Misha and Grisha
699; in Prater with Cyprian; in Sarajevo, 829;
915; best friend of the "horrible little bourgeoise, Heidi" in The Burgher King
541; "Mark Four something or other"; actually, it's the Mark IV Ohmic Drift Compensator, which "regulates how much light is allowed to enter the silvering of the mirror! Special kind of refraction! Calibrated against imaginary index! Dangerous! Of the essence!'" - a component of the Q-weapon; 565;
339; actress Dally's replacing, in New York City; 342;
772; aka Muslims
521; "resident Jewish mystic" in Morocco
799; crytographer in Venice;
640; from Germany
681; "Emperor's chamberlain"; Monte Nuovo ("new mountain") is a cinder cone volcano within the Campi Flegrei caldera, on the Bay of Naples. It last erupted in 1538. More...
59; "a walking interferometer", 62; Charles "Blinky" Morgan, fur store burglar and cop killer, arrested June 1887, hanged Columbus, Ohio, March 1888; From A History of the City of Cleveland by James Harrison Kennedy; execution of, 65;
Morgan, John Pierpont (J.P.) (1837-1913)
34; J.P. Morgan originally provided Tesla $150,000 (although he needed $1M) in 1900 to build the Wardenclyff laboratory, but abandoned Tesla when he found out what Tesla's true purpose for Wardenclyff was &151; Tesla's vision of free power did not agree with Morgan's financial worldview; From Educate-Yourself.com: "Undreamed of therapeutic applications to improve human health and to eliminate disease conditions could have been achieved fully 100 years ago had Tesla been allowed to complete his commercial development of Radiant Energy. But powerful barons of industry, chiefly in the person of John Pierpont Morgan, colluded to deny him the financial backing he needed and in doing so, effectively denied mankind one of Nature’s most abundant and inexhaustible gifts of free energy"; 326; "safe as the Morgan Bank" 379; a prince of capital, 734;
Morley, Professor Edward
62; and Blinky Morgan, 62;
91; Webb Traverse's minister
560; a police spy;
665; French: "skunk"; Ruperta's sexy poodle
769; a peak in the Gangdisê mountains in the Tibet region of China, the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia — the Indus River, the Sutlej River — is considered a sacred place in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Bön faith. In Hindu mythology, it is considered to be the abode of Lord Shiva. The mountain lies near Lake Manasarowar and Lake Rakshastal in Tibet. Wikipedia
560; a type of hydrangea (flower)
Movay, E. Percy
1077; "strangely possessed algebraist"
16; civilian dress worn by a person who is entitled to wear a military uniform
557; "arms tycoon" at the Kursaal, in Pera (Istanbul); No benign associations with "Mulciber"! Mulciber is an alternative name of the Roman god Vulcan, the god of fire and volcanoes, and the manufacturer of art, arms, iron, and armor for gods and heroes. Mulciber is also the name of a character in John Milton's Paradise Lost, the architect of the demon city of Pandemonium. In the Harry Potter books, Mulciber is a Death Eater, a minor Dark Wizard; 911;
Multiple Worlds or Dimensions
See Lateral World Sets.
68; in Cleveland
"Museum of Hat History," 43; 145; "Museum of Museumology," 149-151; "Museum der Monstrositäten, . . . dedicated to the current 'Crisis' in European mathematics," 632; "museum of bad taste" (Hotel Neue Mutzenbacher), 702;
- Museums, with their High Culture sensibility and insistence on removing artifacts from the dynamic ebb and flow of culture, serve as a direct contrast to the Chums' popular "dime novels."
754; Auburon Halfcourt's "colleague of many years"
ukulele: 15 (Miles plays it), 324, 408, 410, 451, 553, 567, 678 (quartet), 684; accordion, 49; 52; 57; 126; singing, 138; in The Inconvenience, 140; 160; 163; 178; 266; 315; "That Göttingen Rag" 324; Tin Pan Alley, 342; harpist, 347; "Her Mother Never Told Her" 347; "Oh, When You Talk That Talk" 349; "Funiculí, Funiculá" 349; La Forza del Destino, 352; in New Orleans, 368; "Jass" 370; "La Cucaracha" 375, 389; 399; song in Lollipop Lounge, 400; 418; "El Capitán" 419; "Whistling Rufus" 419; "My Country 'Tis of Thee" 419; "'Zo Meatman's Gone A-WOL" 420; "At a Georgia Camp Meeting" 423; "After the Ball" 425; 436; Joe Hill's "Pie in the Sky" 463; "For It Is Thou, Lord" 477; hymn-writing, 497-98; "five-pound note" song, 503; 510; 522; 524; "Quizzical Queer Quaternioneer" 534; and Q-waves, 566; Puccini's Madame Butterfly, 567; Borel-Clerc's "La Matchiche" 567; Günther's song, 598; "O Tempora, O Mores" and "The Black Whale of Askalon" 625-26; house band, 642; "Daisy, Daisy" 647; alpenborn figure, 665; Waltzing in Whitechappel 679; liebestod (German: "love death"), 681; "Chinese harmony" 682; "Singing Bird of Spitalfields" 684; "Ritter Georg Hoch!" (old German anthem), 700; Fiakerlieder, 703; Mozart Adagio, 712; 714; 716; "On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away" 725; 746; 754; drums, 783; Tuvan throat singers, 786; 797; "Nimrod" from Elgar's Enigma Variations, 815; "La Gazza Ladra," "The Volga Boatmen," "Auld Lang Syne," Gonzalo and Millicent, 815; campanile bells, 818; "The Idiotic" 823; 831; "oud, baglamas, and a kind of hammered dulcimer called a santouri" 843; ukes - "I Love You Truly" 866; "Very nice, very nice, very jnice-in-deed, 888; accordians, 891; Brownian motion in waltzing, 902; Austro-Hungarian Blues, 915; Lydian mode, Phrygian mode, 940; Phrygian, 945; 946-47; "Jim Along " on a clarinet, 971; Chinese fourths, 1054; in Lake's dream, 1056; "Bicycle Built for Two" 1067; throat singing, 1079-1080; "jazz-inflected hopak" 1079; "Vegetaria-no" 1082
128; In Norse/Germanic cosmology, Muspellheim is the Land of Fire. It is one of the first two primal worlds created in a vortex around the World Tree, and the collision between Muspellheim and Niflheim - fire and water, fire and ice, heat and cold - created the energy that formed the basis for the other seven worlds; Website on Norse/German cosmology
- Take Our Word For It Website
- Victor Roudometof, Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question, Journal of Modern Greek Studies 14.2 (1996) 253-301